DR. ÖZGÜN BİÇER (MARMARA UNIVERSITY)
DR. HAMZA ŞİMŞEK (BATMAN UNIVERSITY)
DR. BİRGÜL CAMBAZOĞLU (ADNAN MENDERES UNIVERSITY)
Economics – analyzes the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. It aims to explain how economies work and how economic agents interact. (The term ‘economics’ is erroneously conflated with the current mainstream Neoclassical economics.)
- Macroeconomics – branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behaviour, and decision-making of the whole economy
- Microeconomics – branch of economics that studies the behaviour of individual households and firms in making decisions on the allocation of limited resources
- Behavioural economics – Behavioural economics and the related field, behavioural finance, study the effects of social, cognitive and emotional factors on the economic decisions of individuals and institutions and the consequences for market prices, returns and the resource allocation.
- Bio-economics – applies the laws of thermodynamics to economic theory
- Comparative economics – comparative study of different systems of economic organization, such as capitalism, socialism, feudalism and the mixed economy.
- Socialist economics – economic theories and practices of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.
- Development economics – branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low-income countries.
- Ecological economics – an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary field that aims to address the interdependence and co-evolution of human economies and natural ecosystems.
- Economic geography – study of the location, distribution and spatial organization of economic activities across the world.
- Economic history – study of economies or economic phenomena in the past.
- Economic sociology – studies both the social effects and the social causes of various economic phenomena.
- Energy economics – broad scientific subject area which includes topics related to supply and use of energy in societies
- Entrepreneurial Economics – study of the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship within the economy.
- Environmental economics – subfield of economics concerned with environmental issues.
- Evolutionary economics – part of mainstream economics as well as heterodox school of economic thought that is inspired by evolutionary biology.
- Financial economics – branch of economics concerned with “the allocation and deployment of economic resources, both spatially and across time, in an uncertain environment”.
- Heterodox economics – approaches or to schools of economic thought that are considered outside of “mainstream economics” and sometimes contrasted by expositors with neoclassical economics.
- Green economics – one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks
- Feminist economics – diverse area of economic inquiry that highlights the andro-centric biases of traditional economics through critical examinations of economic methodology, epistemology, history and empirical study.
- Islamic economics – body of Islamic studies literature that “identifies and promotes an economic order that conforms to Islamic scripture and traditions,” and in the economic world an interest-free Islamic banking system, grounded in Sharia’s condemnation of interest (riba).
- Industrial organization – field of economics that builds on the theory of the firm in examining the structure of, and boundaries between, firms and markets.
- International economics – study of the effects upon economic activity of international differences in productive resources and consumer preferences and the institutions that affect them.
- Institutional economics – study of the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behaviour.
- Labour economics – seeks to understand the functioning and dynamics of the markets for labour.
- Law and Economics – application of economic methods to analysis of law.
- Managerial economics – “application of economic concepts and economic analysis to the problems of formulating rational managerial decisions”
- Monetary economics – branch of economics that historically prefigured and remains integrally linked to macroeconomics.
- Neoclassical economics – focuses on goods, outputs, and income distributions in markets through supply and demand.
- Neuro-economics – interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to choose an optimal course of action.
- Public finance – study of the role of the government in the economy.
- Public economics – study of government policy through the lens of economic efficiency and equity.
- Real estate economics – application of economic techniques to real estate markets.
- Resource economics – study of supply, demand, and allocation of the Earth’s natural resources.
- Welfare economics – branch of economics that uses microeconomic techniques to evaluate economic well-being, especially relative to competitive general equilibrium within an economy as to economic efficiency and the resulting income distribution associated with it.
- Political economy – study of the production, buying, and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government, as well as with the distribution of national income and wealth, including through the budget process.
- Socio-economics – considers behavioural interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social “markets” (not excluding for example, sorting by marriage) and the formation of social norms.
- Transport economics – branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources within the transport sector and has strong linkages with civil engineering.
- Economic methodology – study of methods, especially the scientific method, in relation to economics, including principles underlying economic reasoning.
- Computational economics – research discipline at the interface between computer science and economic and management science.
- Experimental economics – application of experimental methods to study economic questions.