Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning “the people”, and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies “writing, description or measurement”) is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings. As a very general science, it can analyze any kind of dynamic living population, i.e., one that changes over time or space (see population dynamics). Demography encompasses the study of the size, structure, and distribution of these populations, and spatial or temporal changes in them in response to birth, migration, ageing, and death. Based on the demographic research of the earth, earth’s population up to the year 2050 and 2100 can be estimated by demographers. Demographics are quantifiable characteristics of a given population. Demographic analysis can cover whole societies or groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion, and ethnicity. Educational institutions usually treat demography as a field of sociology, though there are a number of independent demography departments. Formal demography limits its object of study to the measurement of population processes, while the broader field of social demography or population studies also analyses the relationships between economic, social, cultural, and biological processes influencing a population.

  • Biodemography
  • Biodemography of human longevity
  • Demographics of the world
  • Demographic economics
  • Linguistic demography
  • Religious demography
  • Political demography
  • Gompertz–Makeham law of mortality
  • Medieval demography
  • National Security Study Memorandum 200 of 1974
  • Population biology
  • Population geography
  • Population reconstruction
  • Population statistics
  • Replacement migration
  • Reproductive health
  • Population dynamics